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Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist and the founder of Analytical psychology. During the twentieth century, Jung has given the most profound contribution to the exploration of the human psyche.


He was born on July 26th, 1875, in Kessewil, the village where his father served as a pastor in the Swiss Reformed Church. As a boy, Carl was a loner, but at the same time he showed a great interest for learning, the feature that made him a scholar of impressive erudition of his time. From the age of six he studied Latin language, and he got acquainted with the Classical Literature. In his adult life Jung spoke several languages, and was familiar with the Sanskrit. During his youth, his interests were the natural science, the archeology, and the history of religion. However, his final choice was Medical School in Basel and work at the psychiatric ward.

 

In 1902, Jung started his professional career as an assistant of Eugen Bleuler, at Burgholzli mental hospital in Zurich, where he enlarged his knowledge in terms of the contributions French and German authors had made to the field of psychology. Jung was interested in the psychoanalytic theory, and in the philosophy as well. At that time period, the major part of Jung’s clinical work was dedicated to the psychotic patients. Using the word-associations test, he had laid the ground work for his Complex theory.

The intensive cooperation with Sigmund Freud lasted from 1907 to 1913. During this time period, Jung’s interests were directed toward the comparative mythology systems, and toward the study of the motives in the fairy tales and in the oniric states. This served him to introduce the concept of the Collective unconscious, and thus to enrich and deepen the psychological theory. The separation with Freud was partially based on the difference regarding the contents of the unconscious.



During the World War I, while being isolated, Jung was preoccupied with the inner analysis. He had gone through the difficult period, struggling through his inner crisis out of which had flourished the important, prolific material, later used for the theory of the analytical psychology.


In 1919, Jung introduced the Archetype as a concept, in 1921, he wrote about the Psychological types.

 

During the 20’s of the last century, his psychological research lead him among the Pueblo Indians in America, and among the tribal settlements in Kenya. The studies of the symbols deepened his interests for the cultural heritage of the East and West, for the religious systems as well. He spent some time in India studying the theories neglected by the Western civilization. Jung had found the parallels between those theories and his theory of personal development and individuation process. Those theories had served him as a foundation for the development of the teleological approach.






His wife Emma Rauschenbach, had given contribution to the analytical psychology as well. They had five children, and they lived in Kusnacht, close to Zurich.


Beside the clinical practice and the work published, Jung’s career included the professorship of medical psychology at  the University of Basel, and the titular professorship of philosophy on the faculty of philosophical and political sciences of the Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich (1988-1942). Several Honorary doctorates were given to him.

 

In 1948, Jung founded the Institute in Zurich, later known as Carl Gustav Jung Institute. The institute was engaged in the training and research in the field of the analytical psychology.

He died on June 6th, 1961 in Kusnacht.